Mitochondria -- inherited from the mother -- are tiny structures in cells that convert food into energy and have their own DNA, separate from the trait-defining genome housed inside the cell's nucleus. There are two main techniques involving three "parents" for avoiding faulty mitochondria. One removes the healthy nuclear DNA from a fertilised egg produced by a couple seeking to have a child, and then inserts it into a fertilised donor egg stripped of its own nucleus.
California State Treasurer John Chiang on Wednesday announced a sweeping suspension of business relationships with Wells Fargo & Co as punishment for the company's defrauding of customers. In addition, Chiang vowed to work with the state's two giant public pension funds to change the bank's management structure. The sanctions, which will last for 12 months, include suspending Wells Fargo as a managing underwriter on state negotiated bond sales, Chiang said.